Chocolate Glossary

This a quick run through some of the most important phrases in the manufacture of chocolate. 

Arriba Nacional Cacao
Primarily harvested in Arriba Mocache, Ecuador, Nacional Cacao combines the robust flavour of Forastero with the subtleties of Criollo. Often regarded as a flavour cacao, Nacional chocolate beans vary from delicately perfumed scents and floral tones to hearty coffee, vanilla, spice, and slight fruity qualities and characteristics. The beans possess next to no bitterness level and have a smooth, unique flavour. Arriba Nacional Cacao is regarded to be sweeter than the majority of cacao products. While some may consider it as a Forastero, others claim that it is a subgroup of cacao all in itself. Some stock of Nacional Cacao may also be grown in some areas of Columbia.

Artisan Chocolate / Chocolatier
Artisan chocolate is delicately crafted and handmade by skilled chocolatiers who take great care in the design and construction of their fine chocolates. Artisanal chocolate is carefully created in small batches using innovative techniques and time-honoured traditions passed down among skilled chocolatiers throughout the years. This beautifully handcrafted chocolate is never produced in an assembly line, but in the kitchens of fine craftsmen. The chocolates are individually packaged by hand to ensure that each one is as unique as its creator.

First developed in Belgium in 1912 by Louise Agosini, a ballotin is a box designed specifically to hold chocolates in place, preventing them from crushing one another in transport. The box is constructed in such a way that the chocolates cannot move from their structured compartments, thus ensuring that each elegant piece of chocolate is as beautifully presented as it tastes. The inventor of the ballotin, Louis Agosini, was married to the grandson of the founder of one of the most famous chocolate companies in Belgium, Neuhaus Chocolates.

Belgian Or Belgian-Style Chocolate
Belgian chocolates consist of a larger, thicker shell than the other two types of bonbons, French and Swiss. In addition, the filling is sweeter and heavier. The thicker shell of Belgian chocolates is a result of the moulding process. This process was invented in 1912 by the famous Belgian chocolate artisan, Jean Neuhaus, to allow for softer liquid fillings and crèmes to be poured into a harder, chocolate shell created by the mould. Prior to the invention of this process, chocolates with firm centres, such as caramels, were simply hand-dipped in chocolate.

Blended Bar
In contrast to single origin bars, where the chocolate beans are all from the same region, a blended bar is a chocolate bar derived from a variety of chocolate beans from different regions, harvests, and types. Occasionally, a blended bar will be referred to as a “house bar” by a producer that uses the same recipe each year to make a consistent chocolate bar, which comes to represents that particular house style. A blended bar is also not to be confused with a grand cru bar, which is a chocolate bar produced from beans that are all collected from the same plantation.

Bonbon Or Bon Bon
A bonbon is a French term meaning “good, good.” It consists of a hard outer shell made from chocolate, and has a soft, flavourful centre, such as caramel, vanilla crème, or a variety of other flavours. In Belgian, the bonbon is referred to as a praline. However, in France, the term praline represents a caramelised almond. Still more confusing to consumers, the term truffle is often used to describe chocolate shells with a ganache filling, but in reality, a truffle is simply a ganache ball rolled in some form of coating, such as cocoa powder. Because the term “bonbon” is so broadly used among some producers today, consumers must closely read the packaging of the chocolates they are buying in order to be certain of what they are purchasing.

A brownie is a chewy and thick bar cookie generally thought of as being made from chocolate. While the first brownies were produced from chocolate, a wide variety of brownies are available today in flavours such as butterscotch, white chocolate, and “blond” brownies. The chocolate brownie originated in the middle of the 19th century. The first recipe to be published for chocolate brownies was in an 1897 edition of the Sears Roebuck catalogue. The chocolate brownie continues to be a traditional favourite.

Carraque are solid chocolate pieces, generally consisting of either creamy milk chocolate or a more bitter and robust dark chocolate. Carraque chocolate pieces are sometimes sprinkled on top with any number of delicious nut or fruit toppings, such as almonds, raisins, walnuts, or hazelnuts. Chocolate curls shaved from a solid chocolate bar or block to use in cake decorating are sometimes referred to as carraques.

Carre is a French term meaning “square.” Carre refers to a small square of chocolate typically of about 5 to 10 grams. Carre chocolate squares can generally be purchased in a small tin consisting of 36 squares. The tins contain half of 40% Jivara grand cru milk chocolate, and half Manjari 64% semisweet grand cru chocolate.

Chocolate Fondants
The term fondant has a variety of definitions. It is typically thought of as the creamy confection used to fill bonbons. This type of fondant is made of sugar and water, and is typically flavoured with any variety of complements, such as vanilla, fruits, or liqueurs. A chocolate flavoured spread often used on bread or crackers is also referred to as fondant. In France, the term “fondant” means pure or dark chocolate. In addition, when the conching machine was invented in 1879, the velvety smooth chocolate it produced was referred to as fondant chocolate in order to distinguish between it and what was then the norm in chocolate, which was not as smooth or creamy.

Chocolate Liqueur
Chocolate liqueur is an alcoholic cordial that is not to be confused with chocolate liquor, a non-alcoholic chocolate paste. A chocolate flavouring is added to the cordial, such as crème de cacao. The cordial can then be consumed as a liqueur or used as a cocktail ingredient for extra flavour.

Chocolate Milk
Chocolate milk is white milk sweetened with sugar and chocolate to add flavour. It can often be purchased in whole, low fat, or non-fat varieties. In addition to being purchased pre-mixed, chocolate milk may be mixed at home by using white milk in combination with cocoa mix and a sweetener, chocolate syrup, melted chocolate, or a chocolate milk mix.

Chocolate Mousse
Chocolate mousse is generally a light and fluffy chilled dessert made from melted chocolate, heavy cream, and whipped egg whites. While chocolate mousse is typically prepared as a rich, frothy, and light dessert, it may also be creamy and thick, depending on preparation methods. Chocolate mousse was once only served as a specialty dessert in fine French restaurants, but emerged into the homes of English and Americans in the mid 20th century.

Chocolate Nib
A Chocolate nib is the small piece, or kernel, of the coca bean that remain after the winnowing, crushing, and roasting process in chocolate manufacturing. Chocolate nibs are the primary ingredient of chocolate. At times, the original chocolate nibs, which tend to be darker and richer than the rest of the bean, are used to add composition and smoothness to chocolate bars or desserts.

Chocolate Truffles
Truffles are so named because they visually resemble the rare French mushroom of the same name. Chocolate truffles are created from a confectionary combination of butter, sugar, chocolate, cream, and occasionally a liqueur or flavouring. The confection is heated, cooled, then delicately rolled and shaped into small balls and coated in cocoa or covertures of milk, dark, or white chocolate. Sometimes, different textures of a truffle may be achieved by rolling the centre filling in powdered sugar, chopped nuts, or
cocoa powder. Chocolate truffles are either domed with piped centres or hand-rolled.

Located in the state of Aragua in Venezuela, Chuao is a chocolate producing region harvesting what are considered to be some of the finest beans in the world. While the upper plantation is planted solely in Criollo beans, the remaining part consists of a cross breeding variety of Amelonado and Criollo blanco. This hybrid tends to be a much hardier and productive variety. The richly esteemed chocolate produced in this area has an intense, robust flavour, subtly hinting at traces of molasses, plums, blueberries, and vanilla.

Cocoa (Hot Chocolate) / Drinking Chocolate
In ancient times, the Maya and Aztec civilizations prepared a cold, spiced drink from chocolate. The Conquistadors brought this drink to Spain, where it eventually evolved into the hot beverage we refer to today as cocoa. Cocoa is a mixture of cocoa powder and hot water. The drink is generally sweetened with sugar or a sugar substitute, though the Aztecs chose to drink their version unsweetened. The Maya however, sweetened their beverage, referred to as xocoatl, with honey. The spiced drink of the Aztec was called cacahuatl. Cocoa powder is produced by removing a portion of cocoa butter from the bean, grinding the rest into a fine powder. Many consumers confuse hot chocolate and cocoa, often believing them to be the same. However, while cocoa is mixed with hot water and cocoa powder, hot chocolate is actually produced from shaved chocolate. Hot chocolate tends to have a richer flavour since it also contains the cocoa butter that was originally removed from the bean during the production of cocoa powder.

Couverture Chocolate
Couverture chocolate is a chocolate coating of professional quality used to cover candies. The chocolate is tempered to form a shiny, smooth shell coating on various confections. It generally contains between 32% and 39% cocoa butter. The high amount of cocoa butter used in couverture chocolate makes it easier to work with, providing a finer coating shell than chocolate that contains a smaller percentage of cocoa butter. Couverture chocolate possesses a different texture and consistency than other forms of chocolate bars or wafers as a result of a better quality of bean finely ground to perfection, as well as its high cocoa butter content. Couverture chocolate may be purchased in blocks of various sizes, as well as wafer discs suitable for the home chocolatier or baker.

Cuvee is a French term used to refer to a blend of various cacao beans. Some manufacturers may use the term to refer to a specialized batch or blend of chocolate they have derived from several different types of cacao beans to produce a particular or desired flavour, texture, and aroma.

Considered as one of the finest in aroma and flavour, Criollo is a flavour cacao bean. Originating in Mexico and Central America, the Criollo cacao bean makes up less than 5% of cacao in the world today. As a result of its fine qualities in both aroma and taste, the Criollo bean is used in some of the finest chocolates in the world, producing an aromatic, deeply flavourful and smooth chocolate of highest quality and delicate undertones. The majority of Criollo beans are harvested in Columbia and Venezuela, though some crops are also produced in Madagascar and Comoros. While some Criollos have been transported to other areas in an attempt to harvest them elsewhere, there has been limited success. Due to the fragility and low productivity of the bean, the Criollo is in danger of extinction.

Dutch Chocolate
In 1828, a Dutchman by the name of Coenrad Johannes Van Houten patented a method for processing and pressing cocoa butter from roasted cacao beans to create a powdered cocoa. While many believe Dutch Chocolate to have a stronger, more robust flavour because of its dark qualities, the darker characteristic of Dutch Chocolate is actually a result of the processing method, not a flavour ingredient. During the processing method of Dutch Chocolate, the pH of the cocoa is altered by the alkali used prior to roasting. This alkali, generally potassium or sodium bicarbonate, neutralizes the bitterness and acidity levels of the bean, actually producing a milder flavoured chocolate. In addition, Dutch Cocoa tends to be more soluble than other varieties, making it easier to mix with water.

Of the four basic methods of chocolate coating, enrobing is the process of coating a caramel, fruit, or other centre with tempered chocolate by using a machine referred to as an enrober. The centres are placed on a conveyer belt, travel down the belt to be sprayed with a showering of liquid chocolate, then travel through a cooling area in an effort to set the tempered chocolate. As the conveyer belt moves, it creates a slight vibration that distributes the chocolate evenly over the centres. The other methods used in covering centres with tempered chocolate include moulding, shell moulding, and dipping.

Fair Trade Chocolate
The term “Fair Trade Certified” refers to the certification by the Fair Trade Association that the chocolate or other commodities complies with specific social, economic, and environmental conditions as set forth by the association. At least twenty Fair Trade Associations exist nationwide, including 17 European countries, Japan, Canada, and the U.S. The purpose of a Fair Trade Association is to ensure proper and fair payment to farmers for crops and commodities, thus providing an agricultural standard.

The Forastero variety of cacao bean makes up about 75% to 90% of the world’s cacao crop. The Forastero tree is capable of growing and thriving in all chocolate producing regions, such as the Caribbean, Africa, the Pacific Rim, and both Central and South America. The majority of the Forastero crop however, is harvested in West Africa. This particular species of cacao originated in the Amazon, and is much heartier than the Criollo variety. However, the quality of the cacao is not as high. The Forestero bean possesses a more bitter flavour, thus requiring a longer fermentation process. While the majority of Forastero beans are used to produce generic chocolate, some varieties, such as the Amelonado and the Nacional cacao, are well known for their aromatic properties and are often sought after as a higher quality of chocolate.

Framboise is a French word meaning raspberry. While the term is often used in reference to a clear French brandy with a light and fruity raspberry bouquet, it is also used by some to refer to a chocolate bonbon made with a raspberry filling, such as a crème or liqueur.

French-Style Chocolate
French-style chocolate often refers to French chocolate bonbons. French bonbons often have a thinner outer chocolate shell than Belgian or Swiss. The original process of hand dipping, rather than moulding, produces this thin chocolate shell. French-style chocolates generally have a ganache centre of chocolate or cream, sometimes infused with flavourings such as orange, coffee, or raspberry. This style of chocolate also often uses pralines or nuts.

Adding sugar to boiling milk and stirring until it reaches the soft ball stage for candy making produces fudge. The mixture must then be beaten as it cools to ensure a creamy and smooth texture. Chocolate is often added for flavour, though other varieties also are made. Fudge is generally very rich in flavour.

Ganache is a smooth mixture of chocolate, cream, and butter. Generally, it is dipped in tempered chocolate and rolled in powdered cocoa, sweetener, or other coatings to create a truffle, though it is also frequently used as the centre of a bonbon. Ganache is often flavoured with a variety of extracts, coffee, or liqueurs and can be produced from white, milk, or dark chocolate. To make the ganache firmer, a larger am
ount of chocolate is used in the blend. If a softer, more velvety texture is desired, a higher yield of cream is used. In addition to being used as the centre of candies, ganache is also used to frost or glaze cakes or pastries.

German Chocolate
In 1852, a man by the name of Sam German invented a baking chocolate for Walter Baker & Company. In 1957, a woman in Texas used this sweet baking chocolate in a cake recipe and submitted it to a local newspaper in Dallas. The German Chocolate Cake we are familiar with today was born with this submission. Traditionally, the popular German Chocolate Cake recipe consists of a chocolate layer sour cream cake with a coconut and pecan frosting.

Gianduja Or Gianduia
Gianduja, sometimes spelled Gianduia, is a velvety paste blended from hazelnuts, chocolate and sugar. Occasionally, this paste may be made from almonds instead of hazelnuts. Gianduja originated in the Piedmont area of Italy, a large hazelnut producing region. According to history, during the Napoleonic blockade of the 19th century, cacao obtained from South America was scarce. Chocolatiers began implementing roasted hazelnuts into the chocolate as a means of making the chocolate more affordable. Gianuioto was introduced in 1865 and later referred to as gianduja. While milk and dark chocolate are commonly used in the production of Gianduja today, cocoa powder was its original chocolate ingredient.

Grand Cru Chocolate
Grand Cru Chocolate refers to chocolate beans that come from a single region, whether a blend or a single variety. To be defined as a single origin, the beans used must be geographically located in the same general area. The first use of the term “Grand Cru” was used with the introduction of the Guanaja 70% bar in 1986. The chocolate bar, produced by Valrhona, was a blend of Trinitario and Criollo beans from South America. Valrhona produces a variety of other Grand Cru bars, including a number of bars from the Madagascan and Caribbean region, as well as the Jivara Lait bar, also from the South American region.

Ier Cru (Premier Cru)
An abbreviation for premier cru, 1er Cru is often mistakenly spelled with an I replacing the 1. 1er is actually a French term for 1st, or premier. While the term originally was used to designate the finest grape vineyards in the Bordeaux region of France, it is now also widely used to refer to the highest quality beans harvested by a grower of chocolate.

Kastanjes is a chocolate moulded and shaped in the form of a chestnut and often filled with ganache. While the word is derived from the Spanish for “wild chestnut”, the term likely has its origins in the shape of the chocolate rather than the taste. The filling of a kastanjes may or may not be of a chestnut flavour. The term is pronounced kas-TAN-ya.

Liquid Chocolate
Liquid chocolate is a chocolate flavoured product that uses vegetable oil instead of cocoa butter as its base. It is often marketed in individual packages for baking purposes. While liquid chocolate is convenient and requires no melting, it lacks the texture and flavour of tempered chocolate made with cocoa butter.

Little Squares Of Chocolate
Semi-sweet chocolate is often sold in small pieces or squares suitable for the home baker. Liquid chocolate is combined with sweetener and extra cocoa butter to create semi-sweet chocolate. Some flavourings or liquors may also be included in the mixture. Semi-sweet chocolate can be used in recipes that call for either sweet or bittersweet chocolate, but should not be substituted for milk chocolate. In addition to being sold in little squares, other common forms of semi-sweet chocolate include bits, morsels, and chocolate chips.

Maracaibo refers to a cacao bean of the Criollo variety that is harvested in the Sur del Lago region of Venezuela, near the Maracaibo River. The Maracaibo cacao possesses a slight fruity and woodsy tone with a hint of sweet spice. The cacao bean has a smooth and gentle consistency.

Sometimes confused with almond paste, Marzipan consists of melted sugar and finely ground almonds. Originally, the thick paste was used as a covering on wedding cakes prior to layering the cake with icing or a fondant. Some even used Marzipan as the only cake covering. Today, Marzipan is frequently given a chocolate coating or shaped into figurines. Marzipan has a sweeter flavour than almond paste and is often used in baking.

A mendiant is a beautifully presented, delicious disk or bar of chocolate studded on top with a variety of colourful fruits and nuts. Most often, it is created in the form of a large slab or bar of chocolate and broken into small pieces of bark. French for “mendicant,” the word means “beggar,” indicating that it has such a delightful flavour one would be willing to beg for a piece. Traditionally, the various fruits and nuts decorating the chocolate represented the different orders of the monastic robes. Hazelnuts represented the Augustinian order, raisins the Dominican, almonds referenced the Carmelite, and dried figs were representative of the Franciscan.

A blend of honey, sugar, and egg whites creates a firm centre confection called nougat that is often dipped or covered in chocolate. Hazelnuts, almonds, or other varieties of nuts are commonly added to the nougat. At times, other elements, such as lavender or fruit are added as well to provide a unique flavour. Nougat can be either very stiff or lightly chewy, depending upon the combination of ingredients. Chocolate nougat is a popular variety.

Nougatine Or Croquant
Nougatine, or croquant, is brown nougat produced from caramelised or crystallised sugar. The texture of nougatine is often firmer than white nougat, which includes egg whites in its ingredients. Generally, ground almonds are added to nougatine. Crushed pieces of nougatine are a popular addition to chocolate candies and other confections.

Organic Chocolate
Food that is organically grown refers to an agricultural system that includes proper maintaining and refurbishing of fertile soil and healthy, naturally grown plants. No chemicals are used in the fertilizers or pesticides that are used in the growing or harvesting process. In addition, no artificial ingredients or preservatives are added to the product. Organic chocolate is produced with a minimum of 95% natural materials. With the recent growing trend in organically grown and manufactured chocolate candies, many mainstream producers of chocolate have introduced organic lines of chocolate bars and candies. Some of the well-known names include Blanxart, Dagoba, and Valrhona.

Palet D’Or
In 1898, a confectionary artist by the name of Bernard Serady introduced a dark chocolate bonbon with a creamy coffee flavoured ganache. The flat, irregularly shaped disc featured a golden leaf decoration, setting this bonbon aside as a truly unique treasure. Palet d’Or literally means “golden disc.” Palets d’Or are now made worldwide with a chocolate, as well as coffee flavoured, ganache.

Though the word “pastille” has had a number of connotations throughout the years, in the world of confections it has come to mean either a simple chocolate disk or a small fruit flavoured hard lozenge. The flat bottom of the candy and the rounded top of the disk were the intentional design of Droste, who popularised the uniquely shaped confection to fit perfectly within the pallet, allowing the chocolate to literally melt in your mouth.

Porcelana is so named for the near white colour on its interior surface. However, the nibs are still of regular cacao colour. Originally called Maracaibo, Porcelana beans are one of the rarest cacao beans in the world. Once considered to be amongst the finest high-quality cacaos in the world, Porcelana is not very resistant to disease, resulting in the near extinction of certain varieties of the bean. The existing hybrids of the Mexican and Columbian varieties are inferior in quality. The prized Venezuelan variety however, with its distinct almond flavour, is used in the production of some of the highest quality chocolate bars distributed throughout the world. Porcelana bars are deemed one of the finest chocolate bars available upon the market and are produced by only the greatest chocolatiers in the business. In addition to the traditional almond flavour, Porcelana bars are also produced in strawberry, cream, and butterscotch flavours. Some of the producers of the fine and rare Porcelana bar include Pierre Marcolini, Domori, Amedei, and Valrhona.

Pot de Creme
Pot de Crème is chocolate French dessert custard served in tightly lidded cups. During the baking process, the cups of custard are placed in hot water. This process is commonly referred to as a hot water bath. Baking the delicate chocolate dessert by this method produces light, creamy and smooth custard of fine quality.

The word praline has a wide variety of connotations. The original pralines were caramelized almonds invented by Clement Lassagne of France in 1636. These original pralines were created simply by dropping almonds into a pot of boiling sugar. A family owned confectionary in the town of Montargis, the town where Lassagne resided, still uses the original recipe for making pralines. Today, the word praline is used in describing any number of products that contain nuts. However, the term is often not used to describe the original version of the praline, which was simply a sugar coated toasted whole almond.

Rio Caribe
The Rio Caribe is a variety of Trinitario cacao bean native to Venezuela. Its name derives from its proximity to the region of the same name. The chocolate produced from this cacao bean has a slight bitterness and a rich, dark tone. Common variations of this chocolate include almond, coffee, pure cocoa, and red fruit flavours

The term “rocher” means rock in French. When used in reference to chocolate, “rocher” denotes a slivered almond encased in a chocolate shell. These sweet chocolate and almond clusters poetically represent “rocks” of chocolate. The popular Ferrero Rocher chocolates, produced by Ferrero SpA, contain a whole hazelnut at the centre rather than an almond. These Ferrero confections include bits of hazelnuts in the chocolate encasement itself, as well as a creamy chocolate filling and a crispy wafer.

São Tomé
Sao Tome is a prime cultivation area for Amelonado cacao beans, a variety of premium Forastero. Sao Tome is located in the Gulf of Guinea, near the African west coast. The cacao harvested in this region has a slight bitter tone and often serves as a base cacao for blended chocolate. Some varieties of flavours include cinnamon, vanilla, red fruit, and pure cacao.

Single Estate Chocolate
Single estate chocolate means that all of the beans used in a particular chocolate are grown and harvested on the same plantation, estate, or hacienda. It is not required that the beans all be of the same exact variety, only that they are derived from the same place. For example, a chocolate may be a blend of Forastero and Criollo, but as long as both varieties were produced from the same plantation, the blend is considered a single estate chocolate.

Sur Del Lago
Andean and Sur Del Lago are the two regions in Venezuela known as primary cacao producing areas. Sur Del Lago Clasificado cacao beans are a mixture of Trinitario and Ceiollo beans. Various flavours of Sur Del Lago Clasificado include hazelnut, butter, red fruit, and floral tones. A rich, hearty and robust cacao, Sur Del Lago beans are of a deep and dark tone.

Tempering is the process used to achieve the appearance and solidity of chocolate. It involves continually heating and cooling the chocolate until a desired smoothness and shininess is achieved. It also gives the chocolate that critical “snap” when it is broken, signifying a well-tempered chocolate. Chocolate that has been tempered appropriately melts better in the mouth and has a better aging process. Chocolate that is not tempered correctly or at an appropriate level will have a dull appearance with streaks throughout the chocolate. Typically, chocolate is tempered by melting and stirring the chocolate until it contains no lumps. About a third of the melted chocolate is then worked with a metal spatula on a marble board until it reaches a thick consistency. This is mixed back in with the rest of the melted chocolate. This method is continually repeated until the entire batch of melted chocolate reaches a desired temperature. If the chocolate is over-tempered, it will revert to its original state of graininess.

Theobroma Cacao
Theobroma Cacao is the cacao tree’s botanical name. Native to the Amazon, the tree now grows in various areas of the tropical belt. In the Greek language, Theobroma translates to mean “food of the gods.” Carolus Linnaeus of Sweden gave the cacao tree its botanical name in 1753. The three primary varieties of Theobroma Cacao are Forastero, Criollo, and Trinitario. The differences in the various varieties lie in the bean colour, structure of the pod, and the amount of beans contained in a single pod.

Tonka Bean
The Tonka bean is a cacao bean harvested from the Dipteryx odorata tree found in the Guiana region of France. The bean is almond shaped with a shrivelled appearance and possesses a fragrant appeal. The flavour of the Tonka bean contains hints of vanilla, almond, and coffee. In 1985, the U.S. FDA banned the Tonka bean in ingestible uses such as a flavouring additive in cigarettes and vanilla extract, as a result of the presence of coumarin in the bean. Coumarin is considered to be a drug that acts as a blood thinning agent. While banned as a food additive in the U.S, the Tonka bean is not illegal in many other countries, including the U.K. and France. The Tonka bean’s fragrant properties also make it a popular ingredient in a variety of perfumes.

Trinitario cacao is prized as a fine flavour cacao and named after its birthplace of Trinidad. Trinitario’s origins lie in the wiping out of practically an entire crop of Criollo cacao trees in Trinidad in 1727 by either a disease or some other natural disaster. In an effort to save the tree, the effected plantations were planted in Forestero trees. The two cacao trees hybridized into the new variety that was named Trinitario. This hybrid result contains both the disease resistant properties of the Forestero and the prized flavour values of the Criollo. Trinitario is now grown in a variety of areas such as Columbia, Mexico, Venezuela, and the Caribbean, in addition to its original birthplace of Trinidad. Chocolate bars consisting solely of Trinitario chocolate include Pralus Bars, Rio Caribe by Domori, and Carenero Superior by El Rey.